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Monday, September 10, 2018

Dedication and Acknowledgments for Belabored


This book is dedicated to my grandson, Luca David Williams, and any future grandchildren God may bless me with. It is for them and their future that I have written this book.
I would like to gratefully acknowledge the following individuals, without whom Belabored would have remained only a dream:
My parents, Barbara and David Parrish, who fanned my interest as a writer, provided the inspiration for the marriages portrayed in Belabored, and supported my children and me during the most difficult period of our lives;
My sisters, Elizabeth Jett, Jo Ann Spicer and Rosalind Quirk, who allowed me to use parts of their stories to develop the characters, and who have served as unending sources of love, encouragement and constructive criticism in the development of this book;
My blind friend, Tina Simon, who has more vision than most sighted people I know; her ongoing prayer support and confidence in me have kept me going, and her tireless perusals of Belabored drafts have stretched the book to its fullest potential;
My children, Aaron Michael and Ethan Zechariah Williams, who let me grow up with them into a mom I hope they can always be proud of, and whose questioning of the parental limits I set gave me the opportunity to sharpen my debating skills;
My nieces and nephews, who shared their growing up with me and enriched my life; a special thanks to my nephew, Sgt. Joshua Spicer, who is lovingly serving his country, and who shared information about military life for the first draft of Belabored;
My precious, “labor-less” daughter, Elise Ann Hoell Williams, who trudged valiantly through the first draft of Belabored, offering loving feedback and suggestions which vastly improved subsequent drafts;
Jocelyn Craparo, MD, Obstetrics, Gynecology and Maternity, and Anthony Gannon, MD, Endocrinology, Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, who shared their medical expertise so that the health conditions described in Belabored would be accurate;
Karen Hess, Executive Director of AlphaCare Pregnancy Center, Melanie Parks, Executive Director of Amnion Pregnancy Center, and Louann Rodgers, also with Amnion, who answered my questions about their work and allowed me to tour their facilities, so that the vital work of crisis pregnancy centers could be brought to light in Belabored;
Ed and Gina Brocklesby and another anonymous couple, who graciously shared the joys and heartaches of their adoption stories with me, so that the adoption process could be realistically depicted in Belabored;
Mary Kellett, Founder and Director of Prenatal Partners for Life, whose story inspired chapter 33 of Belabored, and whose input and website contributed vastly to the authenticity of Emma and Tom’s journey towards acceptance;
Several individuals who prefer not to be named publicly, but whose experiences have a direct bearing on the subject matter in Belabored; their stories provided crucial elements and quotations for the book;
Fellow authors Christine Rhyner, Emily Parke Chase, Charlotte Snead and Robert Cook, who offered gentle advice and wise suggestions on early drafts of Belabored, which steered me in the right direction;
Fellow authors Mary Dolan Flaherty and Rhonda Gaines, whose careful scrutiny and research-based recommendations brought Belabored over the finish line, helping to shape it into a worthwhile product;
Fellow author Angela Schans, whose technical expertise and encouragement was invaluable in helping me develop my online platform;
Fellow author Megan Breedlove, who encouraged my writing journey and put me in touch with her husband, Phil, who helped retrieve my manuscript when yours truly misplaced it in the computer “Ether Zone;”
My treasured friend, Lisa Neff, who has encouraged me in every facet of my writing journey, and whose advice is invaluable;
My dear friends, Anna Marie Lubonski and Barbara Driver, who offered feedback on the third draft of Belabored, and convinced me of the need to tie up loose ends;
My cherished friend, Robin Luckie, who reads and shares all my writings, and makes me feel like any words that flow from my pen contain the wisdom of Solomon;
My “fairy godmother,” Anita Miller, who always makes time for my family and me; she took time out of her overly packed schedule to read my scribblings, and helped to brainstorm the ending of the book;
And, above all, my Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, without whom neither this book nor this servant would amount to anything.

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

Works Consulted for Belabored


Sorry, readers. This document isn't going to win any beauty contests. It didn't transfer very well from my Word document. Still, I wanted you to have it as a resource, and to know that I thoroughly researched the information presented in Belabored. I hope you find it useful.

"Abortion, Partial Birth." McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. The Free Dictionary. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/partial+birth+abortion>. Definition, purpose, legal controversies, precautions, prep, aftercare, results of partial birth abortion, AKA "IDX".
“Abortion Statistics: United States Data and Trends.” National Right to Life, NRLC Educational Foundation, nrlc.org/uploads/factsheets/FS01AbortionintheUS.pdf . 8 Aug. 2018. Abortion death statistics in United States since 1973. Referenced by Bonny in chapter 50.
"Adoption." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July 2014. Web. 7 Mar. 2015. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/adoption/>. Fact sheets on various types of adoption. International adoption typically costs $15,000 - $45,000.
"Adoption in Pennsylvania." PA Department of Human Services. PA Department of Human Services, 19 Nov. 2014. Web. 7 Mar. 2015. <http://www.dhs.state.pa.us/forchildren/childwelfareservices/adoptioninpennsylvania/S_000330>. Resources for PA adoption. Link to Spaulding for Children http://spaulding.org/cfs/adoption/ which charges nothing to adopt special needs children.
"Adverse Psychological Reactions: A Fact Sheet." Hope After Abortion, Project 
              Rachel Ministry, 2011, hopeafterabortion.com/?page_id=213. Accessed 29 Aug. 

   2016.
  From the webpage: "... the largest and most definitive analysis of the mental 
               health risks associated with abortion was published September 1, 2011 in 
               the prestigious British Journal of Psychiatry (Coleman, PK, “Abortion 
               and Mental Health: Quantitative Synthesis and Analysis of Research 
               Published 1995-2009,” BJP 2011; 199:180-186). The meta-analysis conducted 
               by Professor Priscilla Coleman, PhD of Bowling Green State University, 
             examines twenty-two major studies published between 1995 and 2009 involving 
             a total of 877,181 women, of whom 163,831 had abortions. Taking into 
             account all the mental health problems studied—anxiety, depression, alcohol 
              use/misuse, marijuana use and all suicidal behaviors—here is what this 
             rigorous analysis found: Women who have had an abortion have an 81% 
            higher risk of subsequent mental health problems compared to women who have 
             not had an abortion.Women who aborted have a 138% higher risk of mental 
             health problems compared to women who have given birth.Women who 
            aborted have a 55% higher risk of mental health problems compared to women 
             with an “unplanned” pregnancy who gave birth.Women with a history 
            of abortion have higher rates of anxiety (34% higher), depression (37%), 
            alcohol use/misuse (110%), marijuana use (230%), and suicidal behavior 
              (155%), compared to those who have not had an abortion."

Quoting a footnote: "Women with a history of sexual assault tend to have greater
distress before, during and after their abortions due to association between the abortion and the sexual assault." Zakus, “Adolescent Abortion Option,” Social Work in  Health Care, 1987;12(4): 87; Makhorn, “Sexual Assault and  Pregnancy,” in New Perspectives in Human Abortion, eds. Mall and Watts, University Publications of America: Washington, DC: 1981. 
Affordable Fertility Treatments. Center for Human Reproduction. Center for Human Reproduction, 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 28 Oct. 2014. <https://www.centerforhumanreprod.com/pdf/chr_ivf_uninsured_to_50k_us_2014.pdf>. Procedures and costs of assisted reproduction, e.g., IVF.
"The Am I Pregnant TEST." How to Know if You are Pregnant. wikiHow, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://www.wikihow.com/Know-if-You-are-Pregnant>. Online 3-minute questionnaire of pregnancy symptoms.
Andrews, Evan. "8 Reasons It Wasn’t Easy Being Spartan." History Lists. A & E Television Networks, LLC, 5 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.history.com/>. Treatment of babies in ancient Sparta.
"Annual Report 2013-2014." Planned Parenthood. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 16 Dec. 2014. Web. 6 June 2015. <http://issuu.com/actionfund/docs/annual_report_final_proof_12.16.14_/0>. Page 18 of this online annual report, published by digital publishing platform Issuu, lists the number of abortions provide by Planned Parenthood in fiscal year ending June 30, 2014 as 327,653.
Arons, Jessica. "The Adoption Option: Adoption Won’t Reduce Abortion but It Will Expand Women’s Choices." Center for American Progress: Progressive Ideas for a Strong, Just, and Free America. Center for American Progress, 18 Oct. 2010. Web. 19 Aug. 2015. <https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/women/report/2010/10/18/8460/the-adoption-option/>. Article examining open and closed adoption, with preference shown toward birth mothers over adoptive parents. Also discusses surrogate parenting: "The advent of assisted reproductive technologies is allowing people to create children and families in ways never imagined in earlier times" (17). Disparages crisis pregnancy centers, labeling them "coercive" and "unethical," but fails to cite research to support that description (14-15).
Blackwell, Tom. "When is Twins Too Many?" National Post. National Post, 11 Jan. 2011. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.nationalpost.com/news/When+twins+many/3960709/story.html>. Fetal reduction's effect on marriages.
Brei, Tim, M.D., Colleen Payne, and Gordon Worley, M.D., eds. "An Expectant Parents Guide to Spina Bifida." Spina Bifida Association. Spina Bifida Association of America, 2014. Web. 29 May 2015. <http://www.spinabifidaassociation.org/site/c.evKRI7OXIoJ8H/b.8340123/k.1937/An_Expectant_Parents_Guide_to_Spina_Bifida.htm>. Description, pre-natal diagnosis, post-natal care, and medical conditions associated with spina bifida. 
Brocklesby, Gina. E-mail interview. 15 Sept. 2014. Questions about adoption costs and procedures.
Brown, Lauretta. "Adults Raised by Gay Couples Speak Out Against Gay 
     ‘Marriage’ in Federal Court." CNSNews.com. Media Research Center, 23 
     Jan. 2015. Web. 8 July 2016. <http://cnsnews.com/news/article/ 
     lauretta-brown/ 
     adults-raised-gay-couples-speak-out-against-gay-marriage-federal-court>. 
     Four adult children raised by gay parents testify in 5th Circuit Court of 
     Appeals (New Orleans) against legalizing gay marriage.  

Butts, Dianne E., comp. Deliver Me: Hope, Help, and Healing through True Stories of Unplanned Pregnancy. Pueblo: Connections Press, 2011. Print. Stories of unplanned pregnancies, abortion, adoption, and pregnancy center work.
Caifa, Karin. New Crib Safety Standards in Effect. cnn.com. CNN, 28 June 2011. Web. 23 Jan. 2015. <http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2011/06/28/dangerous-drop-side-cribs-no-longer-for-sale/>. Drop side cribs ousted in favor of adjustable mattress cribs.
Caldwell, Simon. "Blind Tenor Andrea Bocelli Praises Mother for Rejecting Doctor's Advice to Have Abortion Because He Might be Disabled." Mail Online 8 June 2010: n. pag. Print. Bocelli's praise of his mother's decision not to abort him, despite warnings that he would be disabled.
Campellone, Joseph V., M.D. "Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting." Medline Plus. National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 29 Oct. 2013. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003019.htm>. Explanation of VP shunting for hydrocephalus; procedure and recovery.
- - -. "Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting." MedLine Plus. Bethesda: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2015. N. pag. MedlinePlus. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003019.htm>. Explanation of VP shunting procedure and recovery.
Card, Michael and Betsy Hernandez. Sleep Sound in Jesus: Gentle Lullabies for Baby. Chatsworth, CA: Sparrow, 1989. Sound recording.
"CDC Growth Charts." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/cdc_charts.htm>. CDC growth charts for weight, stature, head circumference.
"Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment." The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/hydrocephalus#.VQ9Nf_nF-So>. Prenatal surgery for hydrocephalus, spina bifida, and other conditions.
"Cesarean Section." Childbirth Connection. National Partnership for Women and Families, 11 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2016. <http://www.childbirthconnection.org/article.asp?ck=10167>. What women can expect during and after a C-section. IV pain meds followed up by oral after IV is removed; clear liquids at first; regular postpartum room.
Chen, Stephanie. "Boy, 12, Faces Grown Up Murder Charges." CNN. CNN, 15 Mar. 2010. Web. 28 Mar. 2015. <http://www.cnn.com/2010/CRIME/02/10/pennsylvania.young.murder.defendant/>. Story of 12-year-old who shot and killed his father's pregnant fiance`. Facing two counts of murder (mother and baby). Name and photo divulged. 
"Chiari Malformation Fact Sheet." National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, June 2013. Web. 6 June 2015. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/chiari/detail_chiari.htm>. Description of Chiari malformation, as well as causes and treatment.
"Child Adoption Laws Pennsylvania." Child Adoption Laws.com. AdoptionServices.org, 17 Oct. 2013. Web. 7 Mar. 2015. <http://www.childadoptionlaws.com/child_adoption_laws/adoption_laws_pennsylvania.htm>. PA adoption laws. States that consent forms can be revoked up to 30 days after signing, after which adoption proceedings may begin. Quotes extensively from: Pennsylvania Adoption Statute and Law Title 23: Domestic Relations  Part III. Adoption
Chapters 21,23,25,27,29. 

"Child Maltreatment 2012." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Children’s Bureau (Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children and Families) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 17 Dec. 2013. Web. 8 Nov. 2014. <http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/cm2012.pdf>. Statistics on child abuse in 2012. Table 5-5 on page 71.
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2017). Infant safe haven laws. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau.
Many State legislatures have enacted legislation to address infant abandonment and
endangerment in response to a reported increase in the abandonment of infants in unsafe
locations, such as public restrooms or trash receptacles. Beginning in Texas in 1999,
‘Baby Moses laws’ or infant safe haven laws have been enacted as an incentive for
mothers in crisis to safely relinquish their babies to designated locations where the babies
are protected and provided with medical care until a permanent home is found. Safe
haven laws generally allow the parent, or an agent of the parent, to remain anonymous
 and to be shielded from criminal liability and prosecution for child endangerment,
abandonment, or neglect in exchange for surrendering the baby to a safe haven.”
 CNN Library. "Scott Peterson Trial Fast Facts." CNN U.S. Cable News Network Turner Broadcasting System, Inc., 22 Apr. 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/15/us/scott-peterson-trial-fast-facts/index.html>. Timeline of Scott Peterson murder case.
Collins, Suzanne. The Hunger Games. New York: Scholastic, 2008. Print. Futuristic novel referenced in chapter 22 of Belabored.
"Consent to Adoption." Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau, Apr. 2013. Web. 7 Apr. 2015. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/consent.pdf#page=2&view=Who Must Consent>. Legalities of voluntary termination of parental rights.
Craparo, Jocelyn L., MD. E-mail interview. 13 Mar. 2015. Questions about pregnancy and abortion. Dr. is an OB/GYN.
“Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10008193. 8 Aug. 2018. Statistics of number of people killed by Nazis in World War II. Referenced by Bonny in chapter 50.
"Fact Sheet: Gestational Carrier (Surrogate)." American Society for Reproductive Medicine. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 2014. Web. 3 Nov. 2014. <http://www.reproductivefacts.org/Templates/SearchResults.aspx?q=surrogate>. Gestational carrier vs. surrogate.
"Fact Sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States." Guttmacher Institute. Guttmacher Institute, July 2014. Web. 6 June 2015. <http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html#1>. Abortion stats: "In 2011, 1.06 million abortions were performed, down 13% from 1.21 million in 2008. From 1973 through 2011, nearly 53 million legal abortions occurred." Source: Jones RK and Jerman J, Abortion incidence and service availability in the United States, 2011,Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2014, 46(1):3-14
Ferris, Sarah, and Cristina Marcos. "House Approves 20-week Abortion Ban." MSN News. MSN, 13 May 2015. Web. 25 May 2015. <http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/house-approves-20-week-abortion-ban/ar-BBjKum5?srcref=rss>. Facts on Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act, which passed House in May 2015.
"Fetal Development: Stages of Growth." Cleveland Clinic. Cleveland Clinic, 30 July 2010. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://my.clevelandclinic.org/healthy_living/pregnancy/hic-fetal-development-stages-of-growth.aspx>. Fetal development from conception through ninth month.
Franklin, TaSha. "The Best Car Seat: From Infant Car Seats to Booster Seats." The Best Car Seats Reviews. TaSha Franklin, 16 Dec. 2011. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://thebestcarseatsreviews.com/about/>. Reviews & descriptions of infant, convertible & booster car seats.
FULL FOOTAGE: Second Planned Parenthood Senior Executive Haggles Over Baby Parts Prices. Prod. Centerformedicalprogress.org. You Tube. You Tube, 21 July 2015. Web. 25 July 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwAGsjoorvk>. Dr. Mary Gatter of Planned Parenthood discusses compensation and logistics of fetal tissue transfer.
"Gain Weight Safely During Your Pregnancy." WebMD. Ed. Kecia Gaither, MD, MPH. N.p.: n.p., 2014. 1-2. WebMD. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/healthy-weight-gain>. Guidelines for pregnancy weight gain.
Gillespie, Natalie Nichols. Successful Adoption: A Guide for Christian Families. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2006. Print. Resource for families considering domestic or international adoption.
Gleicher, Norbert, MD, et al. "Fertility Treatments and Multiple Births in the United States." New England Journal of Medicine 370 (2014): 1069-71. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1400242>. Rates of multiple pregnancy occurence after IVF and other fertility treatments. Complications in multiple births.
Harms, Roger W., M.D. "Could an Abortion Increase the Risk of Problems in a Subsequent Pregnancy?" Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 5 Aug. 2014. Web. 15 July 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/getting-pregnant/expert-answers/abortion/faq-20058551>. "Some research suggests a possible link between abortion and an increased risk of: vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy; preterm birth; low birth weight; placenta problems, such as retained placenta... Rarely, a surgical abortion can damage the cervix or uterus. In such cases, surgery might be needed to correct the damage before a woman can conceive again. Also, rarely the cervix can be weakened, leading to the potential for the cervix to open prematurely (incompetent cervix) in a subsequent pregnancy. This is more likely to affect women who have had multiple surgical abortions."
Hatfield, Heather. "The Truth About C-Sections: Pregnant and Thinking about Having a C-section? Learn about the Risks, Benefits, and Recovery." WebMD. WebMD, LLC, 2 Feb. 2010. Web. 13 Apr. 2016. <http://www.webmd.com/baby/features/the-truth-about-c-sections>. What to expect after a C-section: catheter, 4-day hospital stay, numbness below waist till catheter removed, on narcotics, pain on movement (have to move to avoid blood clots), lift nothing heavier than baby for 2 weeks, no driving for 2 weeks, no exercise for 4-6 weeks, no sex for 6 weeks. May take up to 3 months to feel normal again.
"Helen Keller Biography." American Foundation for the Blind. American Foundation for the Blind, 2016. Web. 1 May 2016. <http://www.afb.org/info/about-us/helen-keller/biography-and-chronology/biography/1235>. Helen Keller's biography.
Hemminki, Elina, et al. "Induced Abortions Previous to IVF: An Epidemiologic Register-based Study from Finland." Human Reproduction 23.6 (2008): 1320-23. PubMed.gov. Web. 15 July 2015. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18372256>. Study suggesting link between induced abortion and subsequent infertility.
Hess, Karen. Personal interview. 11 Nov. 2015. Tour of Alpha Pregnancy Center in Philadelphia. Recorded interview with Karen Hess, Executive Director, and obtained print materials.
"H.R.36 - Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act." Congressional Record. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 2015. Congress.gov. Web. 25 May 2015. <https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/36>. Facts on H.R. 36, Pain-Capable Unborn Child Protection Act.
"Hydrocephalus." The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, June 2011. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.chop.edu/service/fetal-diagnosis-and-treatment/fetal-diagnoses/hydrocephalus.html>. Overview, evaluation and treatment options for hydrocephalus.
"Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet." National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, 2014. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hydrocephalus/detail_hydrocephalus.htm>. Hydrocephalus: definition, types, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, shunts, prognosis, research.
"Hydrocephalus Stories." Prenatal Partners for Life. Prenatal Partners for Life, 2014. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. Testimonies of parents of children with special needs, including hydrocephalus & spina bifida, who ignored doctors' advice to terminate pregnancy. 
"Infant Safe Haven Laws." State Statutes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children's Bureau, 2013. 54-55. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Web. 29 Mar. 2015. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubPDFs/safehaven.pdf#page=7&view=Summaries of State Laws>. PDF file on state "Moses laws" whereby parents can place infants into the custody of health care provider or other agent instead of abandoning unwanted children. Receiving party is granted immunity against liability. Child becomes ward of the state and is often placed for adoption.
Jerman, Jenna, et al. “Characteristics of U.S. Abortion Patients in 2014 and Changes Since 2008.” Guttmacher Institute, Guttmacher Institute, May 2016, www.guttmacher.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/characteristics-us-abortion-patients-2014.pdf. 13 Aug. 2018. PDF presenting statistics that over 50% of women having a religious affiliation have had abortions.
Johnson, Abby. Amnion Crisis Pregnancy Center's 31st Annual Fundraising Banquet. Paxon Hollow Country Club, Media, PA. 7 Nov. 2014. Speech. From the invitation: "The Board of Directors of Amnion Crisis Pregnancy Center invites you to attend Amnion's 31st Annual Fundraising Banquet. Our guest speaker is Abby Johnson. Abby, a former Planned Parenthood leader and author of "Unplanned" will walk you through her heart-changing journey to becoming a powerful advocate for life. Attendees will also hear an Amnion client testimony and will receive an update on Amnion's services and vision for the future."
Johnson, Abby, and Cindy Lambert. Unplanned: The Dramatic True Story of a Former Planned Parenthood Leader's Eye-Opening Journey Across the Life Line. Carol Stream: Tyndale House, 2010. Print. Story of Abby Johnson's rise to become director of a Planned Parenthood clinic, followed by her change of heart to become a pro-life champion.
"Joni and Friends International Disability Center." Joni and Friends International Disability Center. Joni and Friends, 2016. Web. 1 May 2016. <http://www.joniandfriends.org/>. Joni Eareckson Tada's biography and mission to minister to people with disabilities and their families/friends.
Kellett, Mary. E-mail interview. 8 Feb. 2016. Mary responded to my call to Prenatal Partners for Life, an organization which assists parents who receive adverse prenatal diagnoses. Mary describes her own experience with giving birth to a special needs child who lived 6 1/2 years in http://www.prenatalpartnersforlife.org/TouchingOurHearts/PeterKellett.pdf.
Lack, Evonne. "Water Breaking: What it Feels Like." BabyCenter. BabyCenter, LLC, 2015. Web. 21 Feb. 2015. <http://www.babycenter.com/0_water-breaking-what-it-feels-like_10339934.bc>. Description of water breaking during delivery.
Lowry, Lois. The Giver. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993. Print. Dystopian novel referenced by several main characters in Belabored.
Main, Douglas. "450 Dead Babies Found in Athenian Well Shed Light on Ancient Greeks." Newsweek 10 Jan. 2015: n. pag. Newsweek. Web. 17 Apr. 2016. <http://www.newsweek.com/2015/06/19/discovery-dead-infants-athenian-well-sheds-light-ancient-greek-society-341681.html>. "This latest work adds to those disturbing discoveries, building a case that, at the time, if a baby died, its body was discarded, not properly interred. This is because Greek babies, like those in Rome, weren’t considered full individuals until a special ceremony about a week to 10 days after birth, Rotroff explains. During this event, at which time the child was given his or her name, the head of the household (almost always the father) decided whether or not to rear the child. He could determine to not raise the baby for several reasons—for example, in the case of some type of deformity, or if the family was too big, or if the mother was unmarried. Sometimes, an unwanted baby would be left out in a public place in the hopes that it would be adopted. It wasn’t unusual for such children to be raised as slaves."
Mayo Clinic Staff. "Diseases and Conditions: Premature Birth Complications." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic, 27 Nov. 2014. Web. 9 Feb. 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/>. Results of premature birth, including cerebral palsy.
McElhinney, Ann and Phelim McAleer. Gosnell: The Untold Story of America’s Most Prolific Serial Killer. Washington: Regnery, 2017. Print. Two investigative journalists tell the story of the unsanitary conditions and illegal activities in Dr. Kermit Gosnell’s Philadelphia abortion clinic.
Merrell, Richard. "Womb or Tomb?" 2012. PoemHunter.com. N.p.: n.p., 2012. N. pag. PoemHunter.com. Web. 6 June 2015. <http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/womb-or-tomb-2/>. Merrell's poem, which inspired the dialogue in chapter 17 of Belabored:
"God's purpose for the womb
Is to produce a new life
That man and woman might multiply
The husband and his wife.
But in man's own wickedness
A new use for the womb; 
Evil supporters of abortion cry
'At last a tomb! '"

Metzgar, Jayme. "Abortion Is The New Slavery." The Federalist 13 Aug. 2015: n. pag. Print. Three point analysis of similarities between justification and repercussions of slavery and abortion:
"Problem 1: It Deepens Our Hypocrisy about the Humanity of the Unborn; Problem 2: It Reveals the Inherent Violence and Cruelty of Abortion; Problem 3: It Ingrains a Need for Abortion in Our Way of Life."

Mundy, Liza. "Too Much to Carry?" Washington Post [Washington] 20 May 2007: n. pag. Print. Excerpted from Mundy's book, Everything Conceivable: How Assisted Reproduction Is Changing Men, Women, and the World, published by Alfred A. Knopf. Exposé on fetal reduction in higher order pregnancies.
My Story of Planned Parenthood, Pain, and Redemption. By Dena Berry. YouTube. YouTube, 8 Aug. 2015. Web. 14 Aug. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyPaiGRd4Z8&feature=youtu.be>. One woman's post-abortion experience.
Padawer, Ruth. "The Two-Minus-One Pregnancy." New York Times [New York] 10 Aug. 2011, Magazine: 1-7. The New York Times. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/14/magazine/the-two-minus-one-pregnancy.html>. Ethical dilemma of reducing a twin pregnancy to a singleton. Examines the artificiality of fertility treatment, thus rendering reduction "just another choice".
"Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act." National Committee for a Human Life Amendment. National Committee for a Human Life Amendment, 2007. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.nchla.org/datasource/idocuments/5PBABriefPg11c.07.pdf>. Description of PB abortion: I. Background II. Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003III. Executive Action IV. Court Challenges
Piper, John. “‘I Had an Abortion.’” Desiring God, Desiring God, 14 July 2017, www.desiringgod.org/interviews/i-had-an-abortion. Pastor John Piper offers comfort and counsel to post-abortive women who feel they have lost God's grace and the right to worship in church. 13 Aug. 2018.
Planned Parenthood EXPOSED! Caught On Hidden Camera Selling Body Parts Of Aborted Babies. Prod. Centerformedicalprogress.org. You Tube. You Tube, 15 July 2015. Web. 25 July 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyhz8Zjm1i0>. Footage of Dr. Deborah Nucatola, Senior Director of Medical Services, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, discussing sale of fetal body parts.
"Pregnancy Ultrasound." Medline Plus. Bethesda: U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, 2014. Medline Plus. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003778.htm>. How preg U/S is done; prep; results; how & why; risks.
"Pregnancy: Your Baby's First Hours of Life." Womenshealth.gov. Office of Women's Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 27 Sept. 2010. Web. 21 Feb. 2015. <http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/childbirth-beyond/baby-first-hours.html>. Description of events immediately following delivery.
"Prenatal Form and Function – The Making of an Earth Suit." The Endowment for Human Development. The Endowment for Human Development, Inc., n.d. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.ehd.org/dev_article_unit4.php>. "Only 3 weeks and 1 day after fertilization - the heart begins to beat. By 4 weeks, the heart typically beats between 105 and 121 times per minute."
Prenatal Hydrocephalus. San Francisco: Hydrocephalus Association, 2002. Print. 14-page online booklet re: in utero hydrocephalus.
Reardon, David C., PhD. "Rape, Incest, and Abortion: Searching Beyond the Myths." 
The Post-Abortion Review 2.Winter (1994): n. pag. Web. 4 Aug. 2016. <http://www.abortionfacts.com/reardon/ rape-incest-and-abortion-searching-beyond-the-myths>.
"...many women report that their abortions felt like a degrading and brutal form of medical rape.[2] This association between abortion and rape is not 
hard to understand. Abortion involves a painful examination of a woman's sexual organs by a masked stranger who is invading her body. Once she is on the operating table, she loses control over her body. If she protests and asks for the abortionist to stop, she will likely be ignored or told: "It's too late to change your mind. This is what you wanted. We have to finish now." And while she lies there tense and helpless, the life hidden within her is literally sucked out of her womb. The difference? In a sexual rape, a woman is robbed of her purity; in this medical rape she is robbed of her maternity... Second, research shows that after any abortion, it is common for women to experience guilt, depression, feelings of being "dirty," resentment of men, and lowered self-esteem. What is most significant is that these feelings are identical to what women typically 
feel after rape. Abortion, then, only adds to and accentuates the traumatic feelings associated with sexual assault. Rather than easing the psychological burdens of the sexual assault victim, abortion adds to them... The case against abortion of incest pregnancies is even 
stronger. Studies show that incest victims rarely ever voluntarily agree to an abortion.[4] Instead of viewing the pregnancy as unwanted, the incest victim is more likely to see the pregnancy as a way out of the incestuous relationship because the birth of her child will expose the 
sexual activity. She is also likely to see in her pregnancy the hope of bearing a child with whom she can establish a true loving relationship, one far different than the exploitive relationship in which she has been trapped. But while the incest victim may treasure her pregnancy because 
 it offers her hope of release, and the hope of finding a nurturing love, her pregnancy is a threat to the exploiter. It is also a threat to the pathological secrecy which may envelop other members of the family who are afraid to acknowledge that the abuse is occurring. Because of this dual 
 threat, the victim may be coerced into an unwanted abortion by both the abuser and other family members." 

 "Restoring Hope for a Child with Hydrocephalus." World Pediatric Project. World Pediatric Project, 2014. Web. 28 Feb. 2015. <http://www.worldpediatricproject.org/hydrocephalus>. Prognosis and secondary conditions associated with hydrocephalus.
Robock, Karen. "Waterworks: What to Expect When Your Water Breaks." Today's Parent Dec. 2013: 79. Today's Parent. Web. 22 Mar. 2015. <http://www.todaysparent.com/tag/december-2013/>. Description of water breaking during delivery.
Rodrigues de Oliveira, Armando Tadeu. Celine Dion & Andrea Bocelli - The Prayer (O Orador) Ano da Música-1999 - LEGENDADO. YouTube. YouTube, 7 Oct. 2012. Web. 9 July 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dcbSQOaNH0>. The Prayer (Live At Central Park, New York/2011).
Rovner, Julie. "'Partial-Birth Abortion:' Separating Fact from Spin." npr. NPR, 21 Feb. 2006. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.npr.org/2006/02/21/5168163/partial-birth-abortion-separating-fact-from-spin>. History of and justification for partial birth abortions, AKA, D&X abortions. Frequency numbers from Guttmacher Institute. Contrast w/more common D&E abortions (typical?).
"Safe Haven." Safe Haven. PA Department of Human Services, n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2015. <http://www.secretsafe.org/>. Info on no questions asked drop off of babies less than 28 days old to hospitals or police stations.
Saletan, William. "After-Birth Abortion: The Pro-choice Case for Infanticide." Slate 12 Mar. 2012: n. pag. Slate. Web. 28 Mar. 2015. <http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2012/03/after_birth_abortion_the_pro_choice_case_for_infanticide_.html>. Analysis of Journal of Medical Ethics article by Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva in which they propose the concept of post-birth abortion.
Schaeffer, Francis A. A Christian Manifesto. Hovel Audio ed. Wheaton: Crossway Books, 2006. Print. Exploration of Judeo-Christian world view vs. secular humanism. Roots of secular humanism and how its growth has impacted modern sociological and legal thinking and decisions.
Schorr, Andrew. "Interview with Dr. Sonia Bonifacio: Preventing Brain Damage in Newborns." USCF Benioff Children's Hospital San Francisco. University of California San Francisco, Jan. 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2015. <http://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/education/interview_bonifacio_preventing_brain_damage_in_newborns/index.html>. "Hear a Patient Power interview with Dr. Sonia Bonifacio, a neonatologist who specializes in the treatment of critically ill and premature newborns, and Kelsey Dimitropoulos, whose son Luke was born without a heartbeat. Luke was revived and transferred to UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital where he received hypothermia treatment, using a cooling blanket, to bring down his core temperature and prevent brain damage" (synopsis quoted from website).
Seligson, Hannah. "Data Murky on Fertility Rates." New York Times [New York] 28 Apr. 2014: n. pag. NYTimes.com. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/28/data-murky-on-fertility-rates/>. CDC and Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies live birth records; compares IVF cycles to actual births; cost of IVF and age of women undergoing fertility treatment; contrasts pregnancies vs. live births; cottage industry that allows couples to shop for fertility clinics for a small fee. Fertility is BIG BUSINESS!
The Silent Scream Complete Version. Narr. Bernard N. Nathanson, M.D. American Portrait Films, 1984. Film. Former abortionist and founding member of NARAL, Bernard N. Nathanson, M.D., narrates ultrasound abortion procedure. Describes his role in abortion industry and how he came to believe abortion is murder.

Singer, Peter. “FAQ.” Peter Singer, Peter Singer, www.petersinger.info/faq/. 10 Aug. 2018.

Information quoted from Singer’s website; referenced by Tanya in her statement to the District Attorney in chapter 57: I use the term "person" to refer to a being who is capable of anticipating the future, of having wants and desires for the future… Newborn human babies have no sense of their own existence over time. Bentham pointed out that infanticide does not make anyone fearful that they will be killed, because by the time one learns of it, one is no longer an infant. So killing a newborn baby is never equivalent to killing a person.  That doesn’t mean that it is not almost always a terrible thing to do.  It is, but that is because most infants are loved and cherished by their parents, and to kill an infant is usually to do a great wrong to its parents.
“Sometimes, perhaps because the baby has a serious disability, parents think it better that their newborn infant should die. Many doctors will accept their wishes, to the extent of not giving the baby life-supporting medical treatment.  That will often ensure that the baby dies.  My view is different from this, only to the extent that if a decision is taken, by the parents and doctors, that it is better that a baby should die, I believe it should be possible to carry out that decision, not only by withholding or withdrawing life-support – which can lead to the baby dying slowly from dehydration or from an infection - but also by taking active steps to end the baby’s life swiftly and humanely.”

 "Spartan Weapons." Ancient Military.com. AncientMilitary.com, 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2015. <http://www.ancientmilitary.com/>. Description and drawings of Spartan soldiers and weapons.
Speltz, Cynthia. Interview. 14 Aug. 2016. Phone interview with Cindy Speltz, 
          who, along with her daughter, Jennifer Maas, have shared their story on 
         EWTN. Cindy was sexually assaulted in 1974, became pregnant with Jenni, but 
         chose to continue her pregnancy and raise her daughter. Both are strong 
         advocates for choosing life, regardless of how life was conceived.  

"Spina Bifida Fact Sheet." National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, 2013. N. pag. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.noodletools.com/noodlebib/cite.php?ADD=Reference%20Source>. Spina Bifida: types, causes, signs and symptoms, complications, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, prognosis, research.
Sprigg, Peter. "New Study On Homosexual Parents Tops All Previous Research." 
           Family Research Council. Family Research Council, n.d. Web. 8 July 2016. 
          <http://www.frc.org/issuebrief/ 
          new-study-on-homosexual-parents-tops-all-previous-research>. Peter 
          Sprigg, Senior Fellow for Policy Studies at FRC, analyzes study 
          released by Mark Regnerus of the University of Texas in 2012. 
         Sprigg summarizes:"In a historic study of children raised by homosexual 
         parents, sociologist Mark Regnerus of the University of Texas at Austin has 
         overturned the conventional academic wisdom that such children suffer no 
        disadvantages when compared to children raised by their married mother and 
       father. Just published in the journal Social Science Research,[1] 
       the most careful, rigorous, and methodologically sound study ever conducted 
      on this issue found numerous and significant differences between these 
      groups--with the outcomes for children of homosexuals rated "suboptimal" 
      (Regnerus' word) in almost every category."   

Storck, Susan, MD, FACOG, David Zieve, MD, MHA, and Bethanne Black. "Amniocentesis." Medline Plus. Bethesda: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2014. Medline Plus. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003921.htm>. Amniocentesis: how and why; prep for; results; risks.
Tate, Tammy, RN, LCPC. Gift of a Lifetime. Colorado Springs: Tammy Tate, RN, LCPC, 2010.
            Brochure. Print. When parents receive a fatal pre-birth diagnosis, perinatal hospice
 program can prepare the family to grieve and assist with funeral.
Transvaginal Fetal Reduction in a Quadruplet Pregnancy with 1 Sac Containing a Monochorionic Diamniotic Twin. By Sevellaraja Supermaniam. YouTube. N.p., 13 June 2010. Web. 11 June 2014. Ultrasound with narration and music of a fetal reduction.
Twice Born: Stories from the Special Delivery Unit. PBS, 2015. Film. Interviews with fetal surgeons at CHOP, and live footage of surgical interventions to correct birth defects antenatally.
"UNC Fetal Care: Spina Bifida." UNC School of Medicine. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, 2015. Web. 17 June 2015. <http://www.med.unc.edu/fetalcare/conditions-we-care-for/spina-bifida>. Diagnosis, delivery and postpartum care of spina bifida infants.
V., Jeanine. "AAP Car Seat Safety Guidelines for 2014." thelittledabbler. Jeanine V., 18 Apr. 2013. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://thelittledabbler.com/2013/04/18/aap-car-seat-safety-guidelines-for-2013/>. AAP Car Seat Safety Guidelines for 2014
"Ventriculomegaly and Hydrocephaly." Texas Fetal Center. Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, 2014. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://childrens.memorialhermann.org/conditions/ventriculomegaly-and-hydrocephaly/>. Enlargement of brain ventricles due to hydrocephalus. Delivery, birth and outcomes.
Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Gay Couples’ Children Oppose Same-sex Marriage, Tell of 
     Unpleasant Upbringings." http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/jan/8/ 
     gay-couples-children-oppose-same-sex-marriage-tell/. Washington Times, 
     8 Jan. 2015. Web. 8 July 2016. <http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/ 
     jan/8/gay-couples-children-oppose-same-sex-marriage-tell/>. Pros and 
     cons of gay marriage debate. Adult children of gay parents weigh in on both 
     sides of the debate. 

Whitehead, Mary Beth. "A Surrogate Mother Describes Her Change of Heart—and Her Fight to Keep the Baby Two Families Love." People 20 Oct. 1986: n. pag. Print. MB Whitehead's account of carrying and refusing to give up "Baby M".
Wilkinson, Cheryl, and Paul Wilkinson. E-mail interview. 28 May 2015. Husband and wife's experiences with several open domestic adoptions.
Willis, Pastor Dave. “7 things to do when your kids disappoint you.” Patheos, Dave Willis,
26 May 2015. Web. 20 July 20, 2018.
Blog article containing the quote introducing chapter 47 of Belabored.
 XxxAlmixxx. Unassisted Freebirth of Maribel Lee. YouTube. YouTube, 9 June 2012. Web. 7 Mar. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RwXud1hfI4>. Actual birth on toilet. Inappropriate for youngsters.
"Your Growing Belly and Baby: A Timeline Through Pregnancy." WebMD. Ed. Nivin Todd, MD, FACOG. N.p.: n.p., 2012. N. pag. WebMD. Web. 11 June 2014. <http://www.webmd.com/baby/interactive-pregnancy-tool-fetal-development>. Timeline and photographs of fetal development.
Walsh, George Ethelbert. Twilight Animal Series: Washer the Raccoon. Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 1922. Print. Bedtime story Tanya’s grandfather told her when she was a little girl.